Resisting the Surge of Salafism among Malay and Javanese Muslims: The Dynamics of the Tarekat Naqshbandiya and Qadiriya wa Naqshbandiya in Promoting Peaceful Islam in Riau Sumatera

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Rubaidi Rubaidi
Masdar Hilmy
Ali Mas’ud
Kunawi Basyir

Abstract

This article examines the role of two Sufi orders, the Naqshbandiya order and the Qadiriyya wa al-Naqshbandiya order, in the social and cultural transformation of Malay and Javanese Muslims in contemporary Sumatra, specifically in the Malay Riau region. Socio-political approach is employed in order to analyze the internal and external dynamics of the actors involved in the object of study. The argument presented in this article states that, the Naqshbandi order or ‘Malay Riau Muslim tarekat’ has played a vital role in the social and cultural transformation of Malay Muslims by promoting a peaceful and moderate interpretation of Islam. However, the more legalistic and rigid interpretation of Islam from Saudi Arabia has promoted the Naqshbandi order to adopt a more Shari‘a-oriented approach which has gradually eroded the spiritual essence of the order’s culture and given way to more radical Islamic beliefs in the Malay Riau region. In response, the Qadiriya wa al-Naqshbandiya order continues to represent the authentic Javanese Muslim traditions and beliefs, propagating the original heritage of Malay Islamic tradition and culture. This article found out that the ethnicity embedded in the followers of tarekat may influence the orientation of a particular sufi order.

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How to Cite
Rubaidi, Rubaidi, Masdar Hilmy, Ali Mas’ud, and Kunawi Basyir. “Resisting the Surge of Salafism Among Malay and Javanese Muslims: The Dynamics of the Tarekat Naqshbandiya and Qadiriya Wa Naqshbandiya in Promoting Peaceful Islam in Riau Sumatera”. Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam 13, no. 1 (June 1, 2023): 1–31. Accessed April 20, 2024. https://jurnalfuf.uinsa.ac.id/index.php/teosofi/article/view/2156.
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Interview

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Interview with Buya Tejo, on 11 August, 2022.

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Interview with Gus Fuad Wibowo, son and successor of TQN in Bandar Sungai, Sabak Auh, Siak, on 6 August, 2022.

Interview with KH. Muhammad Abdullah Qusman, teacher of TQN, at Pesantren Riyadus Shalik, Kerinci Kanan, Siak Regency, 8 August 2022.

Interview with KH. Suyoto, the Badal of TQN and caretaker of Pesantren Hidayatul Mubtadiin al-Syiyaqi, Dayun, on 25 September, 2022.

Interview with KH. Thayyib Firdaus, the Chairman of PCNU Siak Regency, at the Riyadus al-Shalihin boarding school, Kerinci Kanan, Siak, 13 August 2022.

Interview with Muhammad Ridwan, Vice Secretary of PCNU Siak Regency, 5 August 2022.

Interview with Purwoaji, the Provincial Chairman of GP Ansor of Riau, 22 July 2022.

Interview with Ustadz Afrizal, at the Koto Gasip Suluk House, the center of Naqsyabandiyah tariqa activities, on 11 August, 2022.